Thursday, 10 May 2018

The Last White Rose

Over the Bank Holiday weekend I visited fellow Renaissance Painter and Gamer, Stuart, for a series of three games which followed the theme of an attempted usurpation of Henry VIII's throne by Richard de la Pole. This is the same De la Pole that featured in one of our previous Siege of Pavia games a couple of months back. Stuart has written a background on De la Pole and included details of the games along with some superb photos on his excellent blog Army Royal: . While I have used some of Stuart's photos here most are my slightly less carefully taken "in game" snaps so apologies in advance for some of them!

The opening scene is Northern England, the Summer of 1514. During the previous month De la Pole has landed north of the border in Leith. Initially he has secured little more than fair words from the Duke of Albany, the Scots Regent, but has gained some support from Northern English Lords with Yorkist sympathies. While few banners have been unfurled openly declaring their alleigance these Lords have provided archers and Men-at-Arms to De la Pole's invasion force. He has brought with him a substantial contingent of Landsknechts and with these battle hardened Germans and the English Rebel forces has crossed the border into England. At first he encounters little opposition as locals flee in terror from him and his outlandish troops, however his scouts soon report that a Royalist army has been gathered under George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, a seasoned commander having led Henry's foreward in the invasion of France the previous year. Knowing the Tudor forces lie over the ridge De la Pole prepares for battle.

The initial set up with both armies hidden by the ridge. The red cards represent the Royalist units and the blue cards the Rebel forces.

The Die is Cast

The aim of this game was for the Rebels to deploy along one table edge and exit from the opposite edge with the Royalist forces doing their best to stop them. As always we used our modified Lion Rampant rules. Stuart took command of the Royalists and I commanded De la Pole's various forces, we kept to leading the same sides for all three games. To represent the ridge both forces deployed as paper markers (as can be seen in the photo above). Until revealed all markers could "move" activate on a 6+ and move 7 inches. As soon as a marker reached the crest of the hill this revealed the enemy force below, as well as revealing what that marker was. Similarly when the oppossing side crested the hill this revealed units on the other side. The forces were as follows:

The Earl of Shrewsbury's Royalists

1 Unit of Demilancers (George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, as Retinue Leader)
1 Unit of Foot Knights
1 Unit of Retinue Bill
1 Unit of Retinue Bow
1 Unit of Shire Bill
1 Unit of Shire Bow
1 Culverin

Richard de la Pole and his Rebels
1 Unit of Foot Knights (Richard de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, the “White Rose” as Retinue Leader)
2 Units of Landsknecht Pike
1 Unit of Landsknecht Arquebusiers
1 Unit of Mounted Crossbowmen
1 Unit of Rebel English Men-at-Arms
1 Unit of Rebel English Shire Archers
1 Culverin

De la Pole's Rebels are first to make it to the crest if the hill revealing the Royalist units below.

As with my previous Battle Reports the best way to follow the action is the captions under each photo. At the start of this clash the impetus was very much with De la Pole, with a couple of his units cresting the hill very quickly. It turned out one of these was the Rebel Culverin which deployed atop the hill and revealed the waiting Tudor force below. In an attempt to seize back the iniative some of the Royalist units climbed the hill. The Rebel Culverin took a toll on the group of Foot Knights who lead the advance while the Rebel Men-at-Arms rode up to help thrust the Tudor forces back down the hill.

Things were looking good for De la Pole but he had failed to notice how many Archers, bowmen who outclassed his own English supporters, had been drawn up to face his troops. As the Royalist arrows darkened the sky De la Pole thrust his forces foward, well tried to, in an all out assault. For many of the Rebels taking shelter in the shallow stream at the foot of the ridge was preferable to climbing the hill and this weakened the Rebel attack. With the Mounted Crossbowmen and Rebel Archers being cowed by the bows of the Royalists, De la Pole's Landsknechts and Men-at-Arms engaged with the Archers and Billmen who blocked their path. The rebels were successful in these attacks and pushed the Tudor infantry back down the hill after some brief but bloody melees.

The Royalists climb up the hill for a view of De la Poles forces. This also allows the Tudor archers to loose upon the advancing Rebels.

Initially it all goes in De la Pole's favour with the Rebel Culverin firing on the Royalists and the Rebel Men-at-Arms sending the Tudor infantry back down the hill.

The Marquis of Dorset's veteran billmen take on the Rebel Men-at-Arms.

A view from the Tudor lines below the hill. The initial attack up the hill by the Royalists waivers in front of the Rebel onslaught. 

But the English have done enough to slow the rebels who take cover in the shallow river as more and more arrows are directed at them by the English archers.

 Dorset's Billmen are routed by De la Pole's Landsknechts but this has bought time for the rest of the Tudor force to get into position.

Still pushing forward the Landsknechts take on some of the Tudor bowmen. At this point the rebel Men-at-Arms withdraw from the fray in an attempt to escape the field intact.

The noose tightens on De la Pole's forces as he attempts to cross the ridge.

It looked as though De la Pole was going to make it through. His front line troops, however, had been badly mauled by the archery and combat, so much so that the Men-at-Arms rode around to the rear of the Landsknecht Pike in an attempt to shield themselves from further harm. The Rebel aim was after all to get their forces through the blockade with as little damage as possible and it was looking more and more as if they had been lured into a trap. As more Royalist Archers arrived on the field the archery began to tell on the blooded Landsknecht Pike. The final straw was the Royalist Culverin which delivered repeated shots into the close ordered German Pikemen. The carnage this caused meant one block faltered and ran and the second quickly followed them! With what forces he had left De la Pole was forced to cross back over the border. An inauspicious start to the supposed triumph of Richard IV.

For a moment it still looks as though the Rebel forces may get through, but both Landsknecht Pike blocks and the Men-at-Arms have been mauled in combat and by archery.

Royalist reinforcements arrive and as the Landsknechts descend the hill the Tudor artillery opens fire and one after the other both of De la Pole's Pike Blocks are routed! The day is lost for the White Rose.

Bridge over Troubled Water

Richard de la Pole's first move had ended in disaster. His march into England had been blocked and to make matters worse he had lost many troops in the process. Back across the border this forced the Duke of Albany's hand and he provided a sizeable Scots contingent, hardened Border Pikemen from Lord Home's lands and Maclean Highlanders, to bolster the weakened Rebel forces. Fearing Henry's vengeance Albany much preferred war to be waged south of the border than to have Henry launching reprisals into Scotland. With French money from Louis XII allowing more Landsknechts to be recruited De la Pole attempts a second invasion of England.

For this game we played the "Hold on Tight" scenario from Lion Rampant, with the objective being a bridge over the river in the centre of the table.  I had played out this game before, covered here:, and knew only too well that this was a fast and furious scenario that could very quickly become a bloodbath. The forces were as follows:

The Earl of Shrewsbury's Royalists

1 Unit of Demilancers (George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, as Retinue Leader)
1 Unit of Border Horse
1 Unit of Retinue Bill
1 Unit of Retinue Bow
1 Unit of English Pike
1 Unit of Shire Bow
2 Organ Guns

Richard de la Pole and Scots Auxiliaries
1 Unit of Landsknecht Pike (Richard de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, the “White Rose” as Retinue Leader)
1 Unit of Landsknecht Arquebusiers
1 Unit of Rebel English Men-at-Arms
1 Unit of Rebel English Mounted Archers
1 Unit of Scots Pike
1 Unit of Kern and Horseboys (Scots Highlanders)
1 Unit of Galloglass (Scots Highlanders)
1 Culverin

Reinforced by Scots Pike and Highlanders De la Pole begins his journey south again and is met by the Tudor forces at a river crossing. 

George Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury, again took command of the Royalist forces. Having already bested De la Pole a couple of months previously he was perhaps too confindent of victory a second time. As in the first clash the Rebels seized the initiative and raced for the bridge, the Landsknecht Shot reaching it first. They held it as the Tudor forces moved into position, menacingly rolling forward Organ Guns and bringing up the Royalist Archers. It was these Royalist Archers who soon discomforted the Arquebusiers and sent them fleeing. The bridge was not lost to the Rebels, however, for as soon as the German Shot ran their comrades, the Landsknecht Pike under direct control of De la Pole, took their place.

On the Royalist right flank their Border Horse attempted to cross the river and surround the Rebels only to be halted in their tracks by the Rebel Mounted Archers who had dismounted and taken up a defensive position on the banks of the river. The Organ Guns were nearly in position and Archers surrounded the bridge but it was too late. This time the Rebels' enthusiasm had paid off and they had held the bridge long enough to achieve victory. The Scots hadn't played any part in the conflict, a fact which only furthered the divisions in the composite Rebel army. The English Rebels were already unhappy that they had to fight alongside age old enemies from across the border. With distrust amongst the already nervous Rebel ranks growing the Last White Rose would have to act fast if he was to become King.

The Royalist forces rush to control the crossing, wheeling organ guns up to defend the river banks.

Some of De la Pole's Landsknecht Shot are the first to reach the bridge and they set up a defence around it.

Rebel Mounted Archers aid the defence of the Landsknecht arquebusiers who struggle under a hail of Royalist bodkins.

The "Alemayne" Shot are dispersed under the rain of arrows, only for some of their fellow countrymen to secure the bridge in their place.

On the river banks Rebel Mounted Archers discomfort the Royalist Border Horse who try to push them back.

This time the day goes in De la Pole's favour, his Landsknechts have proved their worth in holding the bridge long enough for the Scots to move up and consolidate the position, although the Scots have taken no part in the fighting.

The opening moves of the clash outside London. Henry's forces are on the left with De la Pole facing him in the top right and his Scots auxiliaries and some English rebels forming the bottom right.

London Calling

Richard de La Pole has broken through and heads straight for the capital in an attempt to achieve victory before lack of funds and supplies and mutual distrust breaks up his conglomerate army. With the Earl of Shrewsbury in disgrace having let the Rebels in, Henry himself takes to the field. Unlike Shrewsbury he has by now had time to recruit Landsknechts for his own forces as well as to muster his finest troops from across the Kingdom. The final day of reckoning awaits, will Richard III be avenged by his nephew as Richard IV or will De la Pole meet the same fate as his brother John?

For this game we fought a classic pitched battle choosing two retinues each. We had 50 points to use, Stuart choosing from the English Army List for Henry VIII's forces and myself from a mix of English, Irish (for Highlanders) and French Lists for the Rebels. The resulting retinues were as follows:

The Royalists

Henry VIII, King of England

1 Unit of Kings Spears (Henry VIII, King of England as Retinue Leader)
1 Unit of Demilancers
1 Unit of Border Horse
1 Unit of Landsknecht Pike
1 Unit of Landsknecht Arquebusiers

Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset

1 Unit of Retinue Bill (Thomas Grey, 2nd Marquess of Dorset as Retinue Leader)
1 Unit of Retinue Bow
1 Unit of Shire Bill
1 Unit of Shire Bow
1 Culverin

The Rebels

Richard de la Pole and his Landsknechts

1 Unit of Foot Knights (Richard de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk, the “White Rose” as Retinue Leader)
2 Units of Landsknecht Pike
1 Unit of Mounted Crossbowmen
1 Unit of Rebel English Mounted Archers
1 Culverin

The Scots Auxiliaries and Rebel English

1 Unit of English Rebel Men-at-Arms (A mysterious Retinue Leader who, this being a Tudor Rebellion we still don't know the true identity of!)
2 Units of Rebel English Shire Bow
1 Unit of Scots Pike
2 Units of Redshanks (Scots Highlanders)

Henry, centre left, throws forward his archers and Border Horse to harrass the oncoming Yorkist usurper.

De la Pole's artillery thunders into action in an attempt to scare off the Border Horse.

This time it was the Royalists, under the uneasy gaze of their King, who seized the initative. The Border Horse and Archers advanced and began harassing the Rebel ranks. De la Pole's Landsknecht contingent attempted to throw off the nuisance of the Border Horse by opening fire on them with the Artillery while on the Rebel left flank a general advance began. The Scots were particularly wary of the fact that if they did not close on the Royalist Archers they could be in real difficulty.

Having at first come forward in the attack the Royalists then slowy drew back into a defensive position luring both Rebel flanks out towards them. De la Pole's Pikemen became irritated by the constant skirmishing assaults of the Border Horse and marched out to drive them away. The Tudor right flank gave way to the Rebel left as they crossed the stream and attempted to close on them. The Royalist archers were always one step ahead and continued to loose a rain of arrows on the advancing Scots and Rebel forces.

The Scots and English rebels advance towards the Royalists, wary of Henry's superiority in archers they are keen to cross the stream and get to grips with the enemy.

De la Pole leads forward his right wing of Landsknecht Pike.

The Royalists bunch up luring the Rebels into an attack.

De la Pole falls for the trap and his Landsknechts charge forward in an attempt to chase off the harrassing Border Horse.

On the Tudor right flank the Scots launch a general advance.

Still sore from the first encounter on the ridge Dorset leads his men into a savage melee with some Scots Highland Auxiliaries.

Eventually both sides of the Rebel army did manage to close on the Royalists, although the Royal archery had already weakened them. On the Tudor right flank the Marquess of Dorset, still carrying wounds from his earlier clash on the ridge with the Rebels some months previously, did his King proud. First he saw off some of the Scots Highlanders in a savage melee before then crashing into the Scots Pikemen and driving them back as well. Closer to the walls of London Richard de la Pole himself charged the Border Horsemen and finally drove them off. His success was short lived though as he realised he had brought himself and his Pikemen dangerously close to Henry's Mercenary Arquebusiers and Artillery. The Arquebusiers uinleashed a deadly volley of shot into De la Pole's closely packed Landsknechts and sent some of them running. As the smoke cleared for a brief moment De la Pole and King Henry eyed each other across an already bloody battlefield.

Flushed with victory Dorsets' men then crash into the Scots Pike Block.

Meanwhile on the Rebel right the Border Horse are still causing a nuisance. De la Pole himself attacks them in an attempt to set an example for his men.

De la Poles "Alemayne" Pikemen have been drawn perilously near to the Royalist guns.

On the English right Dorset has pushed most of the Scots back across the river but is still threatened by a band of Highlanders that have emerged from the woods.

A volley of shot from Henry's own German mercenaries causes carnage in the ranks of De la Pole's tightly packed pikemen. 

Henry, top left, and De la Pole, centre left, are within a stones throw of each other. For a moment the King and the man who would be King cast eyes on one another.

Having seen the Scots, who they were never overly fond of, be defeated, the English Rebels push forward.

On the Rebel left, the Scots having been routed, save a few Highlanders, it was time for the English Rebels to attempt to push back the Royalists. Advancing into the stream and using it as cover the Rebel Archers began to loose upon the Tudors. In the centre Henry's Artillery, having already caused havoc amongst De la Pole's Pikemen managed to take out the Rebel Culverin. To add insult to injury more Royalist Archers arrived from one of the gates of London to support their King. Seeing things go badly for the Rebel leader the English Rebels pushed forward in an attempt to aid him. This was the moment Henry had waited for and his Demilancers rode across the field, riding down the Rebel English Bowmen and then besting the Rebel Cavalry in a brief melee.

De la Pole attempted to make an orderly withdrawal but with the Royalists in pursuit his remaining Pike block broke and fled. Some of the English rebels managed to recross the stream and make good their escape as did a handful of the Scots Highlanders. De la Pole's Landsknechts however had suffered particularly badly and the White Rose was left to ignominiously flee across the stream with only a handful of his closest retainers left. Henry had followed in his fathers foot steps and kept himself well out of harms way during the engagement. He was angered that De la Pole hadn't been caught but otherwise more than satisified that the Rebel army had been dispersed and his throne secured.

Henry's famed Artillery easily despatches De la Pole's gun.

As in the first clash reinforcements have arrived for the Royalists and De la Pole backs away, one of his Pike Blocks having already crumbled.

On the Royalist right Henry's Demilancers ride down some of the Rebel bowmen...

...and then proceed to best the Rebel Men-at-Arms in a clash or arms. The English rebels melt away.

With his beloved Landsknechts routed De la Pole makes a hasty retreat across the stream and away from the walls of London. His ambition of becoming Richard IV has been thwarted. 

These were superb games and it was great that they all linked together to form a narrative over the weekend. As always it was a pleasure to game using Stuart's terrain and figures, the attention to detail makes all the difference. It was a scorching Bank Holiday weekend and we did manage to find some refreshment after the games. As we forgot to take a "Generals" photo during the tabletop action we took one in the pub instead. There's nothing like a well earned drink after a failed 16th Century Rebellion!

We forgot to get a picture of the "Generals" presiding over the field of battle so here is one in the pub instead, staging and thwarting a Tudor rebellion is thirsty work after all!

Saturday, 7 April 2018

Perry Miniatures Irish and Highland/Western Isles Scots

A slightly simpler post for this month. Pending the release of some Irish Cavalry by Perry Miniatures (Michael did say he was going to do some on Facebook!) I am otherwise pretty close to completing my 16th Century Irish Army, well for now at least. Of course when Michael Perry sculpted these miniatures I immediately ordered some packs to paint up for the Irish force I was working on. The results are shown below.

They are really great figures and I love the attention to the original sources. If you have a look back at some of the contemporary images in my post on Kern and Galloglass:, this attention to detail can be seen. From the famous Dürer image one of the claymores, one of the helmets, the cotun, the axes and even the haircuts have made it onto these miniatures. Similarly if you have a look at the Lucas D'Heere Kern from 1575 you can seen that one of the Galloglass has been modelled wearing the exact same helmet as the Kern in the centre. With the Kern the long baggy sleeves of the contemporary pictures have been beautifully done as have the pipers and the Ionars, the short jackets with lace up sleeves. A Kern miniature in the command group even has the same style leather helmet as that worn in the "Irish Kern from Henry VIII's reign" image.

One thing I find a little odd is that they have released them as part of their "Wars of the Roses" range.  While many of the sculpts are perfect for the 15th century I would argue that some of the little details on the Galloglass and especially the Kern's jackets or Ionars are more suited to the middle of the 16th Century onwards. It's hard to tell, as other than the grave effigies for the Galloglass we have far less evidence to go on for the 15th Century Irish. It's really hard to know how many Gaelic Irish came over to fight in the Wars of the Roses battles that Anglo-Irish Lords were involved in and what they looked like. It seems when it comes to the Wars of the Roses historians are still struggling with the composition and appearance of the English forces! Have you ever seen any 15th Century sources for blocks of "Billmen"?

Anyway before I get too side tracked, to me the Kern's jackets in particular have a very mid-Tudor feel to them. The Irish weren't completely immune to the influence of Tudor fashions in this period. Interestingly in the Dürer image of 1521 although one of the Kern is in a "jacket" it is of a different style to those seen in the later images. My feeling, at the moment at least, is that the Ionars are a Mid to Late 16th Century fashion. As my force is intended to be for the 16th Century, as I am sure they will be for many Wargamers, this is not really an issue. In fact I love that so many of the little details have made it onto the miniatures. I can't wait to see how the cavalry look when they are sculpted.

Perry Miniatures Irish Galloglass, with a couple of Old Glory figures on the far left

Perry Galloglass in the centre with the Kern on either side

Irish Kern

The Irish Kern or Kerne by Michael Perry

A host of Gaelic Western Isles or Highland Warriors. I have seen the banner described as a McDonald Standard while Ian Heath states it is one of those captured by William Molyneux at Flodden

When I posted up the Redshanks a month ago I mentioned how in collecting a 16th Century Irish army it has also given me a large Highland or Western Isles contingent to use for a potential 16th Century Scots army. As these warriors shared a very similar Gaelic Culture and fought against and alongside each other it seems they often looked identical. I couldn't resist having a look at the miniatures which are suitable as Western Isles or Highland Scots arrayed as one force.

 There are probably too many aristocratic warriors in mail with two handed axes in the warband shown here but other than that I think the different manufacturers work really well together. These chaps could easily be used to form the Scots right wing under Argyll and Lennox at Flodden or part of the left wing which was comprised of Home's Borderers and Huntly's Gordon Highlanders. In the final photo I have shown my "generic" early 16th century pike, who are playing the role of Home's Borderers, alongside the Gaelic troops under Huntly's banner. It looks like a 16th Century Scots force is slowly taking shape and not a kilt in sight either!

A "Highland" Chieftan and his clansmen. The figures are a mix of Old Glory, Claymore Castings (now sold by Antediluvian Miniatures) and Perry Miniatures.

The Scots Warband

Home's Borderers and Huntly's Gordon Highlanders for the Scots left wing at Flodden? I couldn't resist seeing how the figures all look under the correct banners!